Saturday, 19 August 2017

Operating Experience (3) Has Beans?

Sentinel 7109 has been back in operation for over a year. At first, it was a matter of getting Joyce working; now I'm becoming aware of oddities that aren't working quite as well as they should.

One of these is a jet of steam below the front engine when working hard uphill. This indicates steam leaking through a piston rod gland in the front engine.
Arrowed jet of steam (Photo: Sean Dudden)
Looking underneath, there are four copper drain pipes pointing downwards immediately to the rear of the front engine.
Four drain pipes
In the photo above, the left end one drains leaks from the front engine's water pump; the second and fourth ones are drains for the four automatic cylinder drain cocks; the third one drains the two piston rod glands. This third one has been getting hot at its tip whereas the others just look a bit oily.

Having been aware of this leak for some time, I made preparations for repacking the left hand steam gland of the front engine. I needed to order the packing material but did not know the size so I loosened the nuts holding the gland packing in place to enable me to gain access to measure the size of the gap to be filled. I was not prepared for what I found.
Beans!
Look closely at the dead centre of the photo. Instead of old packing, I found what looked like a bunch of dark grey baked beans! These I removed for examination.
Beans, Beans
The beans looked to be rolled graphite, the remains of the original packing. It is possible to write with them, hence graphite.

Clearly, I couldn't simply put them back to be ready for the next public steaming, six days away.

Sentinel used to produce packing rings with a part number for ordering. This luxury is not available nowadays so I had to find a current substitute. Stuart Gray (Heritage Steam Supplies (HSS)) advised me that the material needed was Pilotpack 4010.
Empty packing space (rough piston rod surface)
I found it very difficult to measure the distance between the piston rod and the surface of the packing space, known as a stuffing box. However, there is a gland bush which holds the packing in place. This is a close fit in the stuffing box so I measured the thickness of the bush instead.

It measured almost exactly 1/2". Thus 1/2" x 1/2" square section Pilotpack 4010 was what was required. About a yard is required to make the five rings of packing for a 1.35" diameter piston rod.

HSS were out of stock so I had to go directly to the manufacturer, Beldam Crossley, to get it in time. Beldams were more than helpful and sent me eight metres of 4010 next day. Beldams were cheaper than HSS but I had to order eight times as much as was needed immediately. (There are four piston rods in all so it's not that excessive!).

Following instructions provided by HSS, I prepared the required five rings by wrapping and clamping the length of 4010 around a mandrel (piece of plastic pipe the same diameter as the piston rod) then cutting to make each ring using a Stanley knife. The instructions say that each ring should be inserted into the stuffing box so that the ends 'butt' together. Clearly the writer of the instructions has not worked with 4010 as, when cut, the ends splay out like a pony tail. Butting pony tails is not really what is required but for this attempt that is exactly what I had to do.

For the initial attempt at fitting, I could only get four rings into the stuffing box.
Four rings fitted (they were soaked in SCO1000CTRO+ cylinder oil)
I screwed the clamping nuts tight to push the packing home and then slackened them off a turn or so to leave the packing uncompressed. As the piston rod surface is pitted, over-tightening the packing will just lead to it being abraded and failing.

There is some steam leakage as a result but it is better than the stuffing box being left full of beans again!

After the first day running with the new packing, the four rings had survived but were more compacted than when fitted. A gap was thus left so I could fit the fifth ring. Again, I tightened the nuts to push the packing home and then slackened them off a turn or so. Some tweaking will be needed during the next steaming.
Five rings fitted
Working on the packing is not easy physically with everything in situ. However, erecting a seat did make things a little easier.
'In sit you'
Only three more steam glands to go, the right front one could still be guilty...

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Cass Scenic Railroad, West Virginia

It's June 2017: I've been to the USA again and found another spectacular steam railway. I have to admit that I like the American Olde Steamy railroads. They seem to do higher, steeper and/or longer than we do in the UK; some to a massive extent and Cass Scenic Railroad is one of these.

I've visited the Cumbres and Toltec, Durango and Silverton, Georgetown Loop, Mount Rainier and a few others before. Cass was new to me and what a gem. It's steepest gradient is 11% or 1 in 9.09 and, according to wikipedia, is the third steepest non-rack railway in the world.

Cass is the home for Shay locomotives. Like Joyce (there is a connection), Shays are geared locomotives and they don't go fast. They are designed for steep gradients, sharp curves and poor track as built for logging railroads in the last century or earlier. Cass has about five operational Shays plus a Heisler and a Climax although not all in workable condition.

So what's a Shay?
Shay No. 2 at Bald Knob Summit
Shays have a three cylinder vertical steam engine along the right hand side. The engine drives a flexible shaft which powers all axles using a ~2:1 bevel gear mechanism. To counteract the weight of the side-mounted engines, the boiler is offset to the left of the chassis; I wouldn't describe this as an elegant feature but it probably prevents a lot of toppling accidents.
Three cylinder vertical engine
Three cylinder vertical engine with air brake pump in the foreground.
Driveshafts are below.
Like Joyce, the engines revolve quite fast and produce a purr rather than a chuff when in motion. A variable length drive shaft with gimbal bearings enables the drive to reach the axles whilst also being able to negotiate sharp curves and undulating track. Bevel gears provide the 2:1 gear reduction.
Drive shaft with gimbal bearing and square variable length shaft joint
Other end of above drive shaft
2:1 Bevel gearing to axles
All the action is on the right hand side. Although one-sided, it does make preparation easier by avoiding the need for access to both sides.
RHS Action Packed side
LHS not so populated
Cass Scenic Railroad is steep. It runs for 11 miles to a height of 4842 feet through some of the most spectacular forestry locations. It also has a zig-zag.
Route from Cass to Bald Knob summit
There is an extensive loco fleet, definitely not of the conventional type.
Loco Fleet
Trains arrive loco-first from the yard to depart propelled from the 'Depot' at Cass.
Arriving at the 'Depot'
Video clip is here on YouTube (including bells & whistles).
The train propels the carriages (cars) from the depot up to the summit except in the zig-zag.
Departing from the depot.
Video clip is here on YouTube (including bell but no whistles).
The train passes this location by the maintenance shed.
Running line leftmost
It begins the ascent and approaches a level crossing. Note that, in the USA, heavy use is made of the whistle when approaching a hazard. (Memo to me: must get one like this for Joyce).
Crossing approach
Being a propelled train, it's possible to book to be in the carriage adjacent to the smoke stack. Whilst this seems like an enthusiasts' heaven, the smoke stack is extremely loud. Many passengers use ear defenders and I'd very much recommend this as 2-3 hours of the noise is somewhat fatiguing and it also drowns the informative commentary.
Video clip is here on YouTube (including whistles galore but no bells).
Cass Level Crossing
A second video clip is here on YouTube (including whistles galore, no bells but many birds).
The line climbs up the hillside.
Line fades away behind
Video clip is here on YouTube (including no bells, whistles or birds but the gentle purring of the fast revving steam engine).
Onwards and Upwards
To gain height in a short distance, the Cass railroad has a zig-zag. I've tried to capture the gradients encountered.
Video clip on YouTube of the train arriving at the zig (including no special sounds).
Line climbing to meet the zig-zag middle section
Video clip of Shay setting off hauling the train up the middle section of the zig-zag (sounds different hauling in reverse).

The train approaches the down-coming train waiting on the top section of the zig-zag.
Down train ahead on left
Video clip on YouTube of the train meeting the down train.
The up train goes into a long spur and waits while the down train follows into the spur. The down train then reverses out and down the zig; the up train then reverses out and up the zag.

The line climbs onwards to the summit at Bald Knob (4842 feet) through some amazing countryside.
Almost at the summit
Shay No. 2 at the Bald Knob summit
View backwards from whence we came
Finally, Shay No. 2 descends somewhat more quietly than when climbing (including not much noise at all!).

A fantastic 5 hour journey, one of the best there is.


Tuesday, 18 July 2017

Operating Experience (2)

Joyce has taught me (and continues to teach me) a thing or two about operating a heavy piece of steam machinery, particularly the bits I didn't address during restoration.

This innocent looking axle box oil filler cap is one example (right front).
Filler cap with original fitting (1)
The lid can be swung out of the way for filling. The cap bracket is peened on both sides to a pin which passes through the oil filling pot.
Filler cap with original fitting (2)
The problem is that the pin has become loose in its 'pot holes' over the years and leaks out any oil which is above the lowest level of the horizontal pin. This is not only a waste of oil but not nice environmentally.

Three of the axle box pots are like this and leak whereas a fourth one (right rear) which doesn't leak has the bracket rotating around its pin firmly fitted in its 'pot holes'.

I decided it would be prudent to convert the pins to threaded short pins which should prevent further leakage.

In advance, I made these short pins about 18mm long, 8mm in diameter with an M8 thread. The original pin diameter was about 1/4" so M8 was an ideal size.
M8 Short pins
I removed the original pin and threaded the holes for the M8 short pins. This photo shows them in place with the bracket suitably adapted to rotate around the pins.
Short pins with adapted lid bracket
So how did I prevent the metal filings from the tapping tool from getting into the bearing, I hear you ask? I blocked the hole to the bearing with a cloth and used a magnet on a stick to fish out the filings produced.

I've topped up the oil level to where it would have leaked previously. Fingers crossed it will be successful.
Level topped up above the new pins.
Here's the finished job (one of four). The bracket is a bit tight and the cap has to be rotated to the correct position to make it seal properly. I also had to reshape the bracket to enable the (90 year old) spring to push the cap home.
Finished job
Three to go. (Technically the non-leaking original one can be left but I would prefer them to all be the same).

One small point that I'd been mystified by for some time is whether the axle boxes use a pad to 'wick' the oil to the bearing surface or the bearing simply dips into the oil bath. I found an old photo from when I was making a new axle box cover gasket. It clearly shows a pad beneath the bearing.
Axle bearing showing oil pad

Operating Experience (1)

It's been five months since I last wrote any blog articles on Sentinel 7109. Joyce has been performing better than I'd expected. I'd previously formed the idea that Sentinel locos chuffed about quietly doing their thing but Joyce has a passenger role and a steep gradient to climb every journey.
8th July 2017 - Rapid take-off
(from a video by Callum Willcox)
Finding myself cab-bound on most operating days and short of a thirty foot long selfie stick, I'm heavily reliant on others for photos of Joyce in action. However, many have enthusiastically come to the rescue with fantastic videos on YouTube. (Search for 'midsomer norton steam' and you won't be short of videos to keep you occupied for hours).

7109's blog also began as a means of recording my own engineering restoration activities for myself and anyone else who might find it useful. Thus I'm avoiding becoming a train pictures blog and intend to maintain the original theme. (I reserve the right wander off subject when I feel like it of course!).

To begin with, hauling two carriages seemed a heavy load for Joyce and the best way to climb the 1 in 50 hill was to keep her in 'start' cut-off setting and trudge up the incline at about 5mph for six minutes. After some months of experience, a dual train running day was held in March 2017; for part of the day Joyce was allocated two wagons and a brake van on the up line. It became clear that Joyce hardly noticed this load at all and could be made to 'fly' out of the station, change into 'fast' cut-off setting and ascend the hill without difficulty.

I discussed this with members of the Sentinel Drivers Club and was given the hint that it was wise to open the regulator fully when in 'fast' cut-off. I'd previously been scared of doing this as it felt akin to always driving with my foot hard on my car's accelerator.

However, with this in mind on the next running day, I decided to give it a go with two carriages. To my astonishment, Joyce shot out of the station and up the gradient with little fuss and got to the end of the run in 4 minutes!

I'm now very pleased and educated that a Sentinel is far from a quiet chuffer and can be very much a hard working, impressive steam locomotive.

Sunday, 12 February 2017

John Coiley Award

Certificate awarded to Sentinel 7109 'Joyce'
The Heritage Railway Association awards evening held on 11th February 2017 saw the presentation of the John Coiley award certificate for the restoration of Sentinel 7109 to working order.

I heard about this award late in 2016 and it took me quite by surprise as I did not know who had nominated Joyce for the award. I still don't but please accept my humble thanks - whoever you are!

Perhaps a little oddly, I had no opportunity beforehand to present my case for 7109 and the interpretation of the project as 'For the restoration of an industrial locomotive to a near replicate of one of two sister engines that ran on the Somerset and Dorset Railway' is different to how I've thought about it. However, it's interesting to learn of how others interpret 7109's restoration.

Nice to have an official pat on the back. Many thanks to the HRA. I always thought I needed to be certified!
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